Biography: Samir Rafla
Normal ECG Findings: Increased QRS voltage for LVH or RVH, Incomplete RBBB, Early repolarization/ST
segment Sinus bradycardia or arrhythmia, Ectopic atrial or junctional rhythm, 1˚ AV block, Mobitz Type I 2˚
Borderline ECG Findings: Left axis deviation, Left atrial enlargement (>42 mm), Right axis deviation,
Right atrial enlargement Complete RBBB. Abnormal ECG Findings: T wave inversion, ST segment depression,
Pathologic Q waves Complete LBBB, QRS ≥ 140 ms duration, Epsilon wave, Ventricular pre-excitation,
Prolonged QT interval, Brugada Type 1 pattern Profound sinus bradycardia < 30 bpm, PR interval ≥ 400 ms,
Mobitz Type II 2˚ AV block, 3˚ AV block, >2 PVCs per 10 s tracing (>12/min), Atrial tachyarrhythmias,
• ECG interpretation in athletes has evolved to help distinguish physiologic ECG findings from pathologic
• Some form of T-wave abnormality (inferior, anterior, or lateral) accounted for 35% of ECGS which were
not normal but not pathological.
• Other common themes included the application of the IC definition of IVCD (≥140ms), sinus bradycardia
(<40bpm), and right axis deviation (≥120 degrees). IC=International criteria.